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CUMANA : The beautiful colonial

The first city founded in the Americas


Longitud: 64 west, Latitud: 10 north
State Capital: CUMANA
Geographical situation : Extreme North-East of Venezuela
Maritime coasts: 705 km.
Fluvial Coasts: 60 km.
Population: State: 1.000.000 inhabitants; Cumana: 800.000 inhabitants  


CUMANA has the privileged title of the oldest city of the continent. Before even becoming a Spanish colony, Cumana was already the cradle of the most important native community of the coast, inhabited by the CUMANAGOTO Indians. Even though its founding date has been recorded as being 1521, Franciscan missionaries had arrived as early as 1506 to convert the aborigines. The discovery of  coral beds off the Island of MARGARITA helped turn Cumana into an important supply center for water and slaves for this nascent industry. In 1569 came the first group of settlers and in the course of the years, two forts, San Antonio de la Eminencia and Santa Maria de la Cabeza, were erected there. These forts as well as the city in its entirety were several times destroyed by earthquakes, notably in 1684, 1797, 1853 and 1929. Since then, San Antonio has been partially restored, but very little remains of Santa Maria which ruins are adjacent to Santa Inès church.


ORIENTE designates the North-Eastern region of Venezuela. That is where the Sate of Sucre is situated. Its long coastline edging the Caribbean Sea attracts vacationers for its innumerable beaches bordered by coconut trees.  Its capital CUMANA is standing at the mouth of the Manzanares river. With an important fishing harbor, a ferry terminal, a bus terminal of bus crisscrossing the country and recently its international airport, Cumana is an excellent departure base for the discovery of the Bay of Mochima national parks, the bay of Santa Fe and Cariaco, the Peninsula of Paria or the Island of Turuepano, up to Macuro where Christopher Columbus landed at his third journey in 1498 following his passage between the Delta of Orinoco and the Island of Trinidad, and the continent he mistook for an island. He christened the place “Isla de Gracia” Island of Grace for the beauty of its nature and the grace of its native inhabitants.
It could be inspiring to follow the path followed two centuries earlier by two distinguished scholars, Alexandre de Humboldt and the French botanist Aimé Bompland whose account of their journey was publisde in French in Paris upon their return, called “Journey in the equinoctial regions of the New Continent (1799 – 1800).


The sun is shining almost all year round over Cumana, warming the sea up to 24 – 26 degrees Celsius. The average temperature is 34 degrees Celsius. The climate is pleasant and dry, and it is enjoyable to live under the caress of the trade winds. The whole region is located below the virtual line of the cyclones displacement. The vegetation and the precipitations are rare at the coastal zone but nature becomes luxuriant, sometimes dense as a forest once elevated above sea level and nights can be fresh in the mountains. In few hours and few kilometers, one passes from the Aloe Vera and Cactus surrounding the Araya salt works to the paddy fields, banana plantations and sugar plantations (cañaverales) of Cariaco, to the coconut trees and the jungle of Paria, to the plantations of cocoa and coffee to finally end up in the immensity of the Delta of Orinoco and its channels edged with Moriche palm trees, the homeland of the Warao Indians civilization.


Cumana’s colorful market is full of heady scents leading to the spices quarters bearing all the colors of the rainbow, to the wide range of fruits and vegetables promising a definite tropical taste : passion fruit, mangos, cocos, papayas, pineapples, etc… It is a real delight to choose freshly fished fishes : grouper, vivaneau, sun, tuna, tazard, etc…) and a variety of shellfishes for a succulent marine paella (large prawns, shrimps, calmars, mussels, scallops).  Thus the alleys of the market carry one in a spiral of tropical colors, scents and flavors. A little local culinary vocabulary: Casabe: (Caribe Indian word) large pancake of manioc measuring up to 1 meter width. Cachapa: thick sugary yellow pancake made of corn flour. Empanada: fried corn flour pancake stuffed with local cheese, meat or fish. Arepa: the Venezuelan round corn flour bread, could be stuffed with cheese, meat, chicken, etc… and it becomes a Latino MacDo. Sancocho de pescado: the typical plate of the State of Sucre made of fish : large bouillabaisse (Provençal fish soup) with vegetables and tubercles (ignames, sweet potatoes, dachine, etc…). Could be also made of chicken.


  • The Cumanese cigars are famous, they are hand rolled in small-scale craft shops. Cigar amateurs will appreciate its flavor and will remember that during the buccaneers’ epoch, these cigars were offered as present to the governors of Cumana and Cuba.
  • The cuatros (four-string guitars) are, with the harp, the typical Venezuelan musical instruments. They are manufactured by craftsmen in little craft shops. Upon order, they could be personalized for you. Music blending Africans, Caribbean and Amerindian sounds is heard everywhere every day. It is indeed a very attractive sight to watch Venezuelans sing and dance to the rhythms of salsa and merengue. Hats, birds, mixed herbs, hand-made wooden furniture and articles hammocks, pottery, macramé, plants, coffee, cocoa and handicrafts of all sorts are available in a wide variety for every taste.


The State of Sucre is named after and in honor of the Great Marshall Antonio José de SUCRE who was the Libertador Simon Bolivar’s armed wing, heroic victor of the decisive battle of Ayacucho which put an end to the Spanish domination of Latin America. He became the first president of the newly born Bolivia and was assassinated at the age of 30 in the Andes, victim of a conspiracy, without ever returning to his birth town of Cumana. Capital of the State of Sucre, Cumana was founded on the continent on November 27th, 1515 by brother Pedro de Cordoba and a group of Franciscan monks who built a convent and a church, in which was celebrated the first mass on the New Continent. This is the place from which the first project of evangelization of the continent started and the first school was created. That is why CUMANA draws its title of  « PRIMOGENITA », the first born.